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Facts About the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy:
What are CNS depressants?
CNS depressants are substances that can slow normal brain function. Because of this property, some CNS depressants are useful in the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Among the medications that are commonly prescribed for these purposes are the following:
Barbiturates, such as mephobarbital (Mebaral) and pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal), which are used to treat anxiety, tension, and sleep disorders.
Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepoxide HCl (Librium), and alprazolam (Xanax), which can be prescribed to treat anxiety, acute stress reactions, and panic attacks; the more sedating benzodiazepines, such as triazolam (Halcion) and estazolam (ProSom) can be prescribed for short-term treatment of sleep disorders.
In higher doses, some CNS depressants can be used as general anesthetics.
How do CNS depressants affect the brain and body?
There are numerous CNS depressants; most act on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that facilitate communication between brain cells. GABA works by decreasing brain activity. Although the different classes of CNS depressants work in unique ways, ultimately it is through their ability to increase GABA activity that they produce a drowsy or calming effect that is beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or sleep disorders.
What are the possible consequences of CNS depressant use and abuse?
Despite their many beneficial effects, barbiturates and benzodiazepines
have the potential for abuse and should be used only as prescribed.
During the first few days of taking a prescribed CNS depressant, a person
usually feels sleepy and uncoordinated, but as the body becomes accustomed
to the effects of the drug, these feelings begin to disappear. If one
uses these drugs long term, the body will develop tolerance for the
drugs, and larger doses will be needed to achieve the same initial effects.
In addition, continued use can lead to physical dependence and - when
use is reduced or stopped - withdrawal. Because all CNS depressants
work by slowing the brain's activity, when an individual stops taking
them, the brain's activity can rebound and race out of control, possibly
leading to seizures and other harmful consequences. Although withdrawal
from benzodiazepines can be problematic, it is rarely life threatening,
whereas withdrawal from prolonged use of other CNS depressants can have
life-threatening complications. Therefore, someone who is thinking about
discontinuing CNS depressant therapy or who is suffering withdrawal
from a CNS depressant should speak with a physician or seek medical
Patients addicted to barbiturates and benzodiazepines should not attempt to stop taking them on their own, as withdrawal from these drugs can be problematic, and in the case of certain CNS depressants, potentially life-threatening. Although no extensive body of research regarding the treatment of barbiturate and benzodiazepine addiction exists, patients addicted to these medications should undergo medically supervised detoxification because the dose must be gradually tapered off. Inpatient or outpatient counseling can help the individual during this process. Cognitive-behavioral therapy also has been used successfully to help individuals adapt to the removal from benzodiazepines.
Often the abuse of barbiturates and benzodiazepines occurs in conjunction with the abuse of another substance or drug, such as alcohol or cocaine. In these cases of polydrug abuse, the treatment approach must address the multiple addictions.
What is Amphetamine Addiction?
Viewed in some circles as the less-threatening "little brother" of the dangerous and highly addictive crystal meth, amphetamine remains a significant threat to the adolescents and adults who use the drug in misguided attempts to fight off fatigue, enhance concentration, or gain a competitive edge in an athletic event.
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